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Preparation of nickel oxide by solution atomization roasting

The atomization method to prepare the powder is initially achieved by spray drying. Spray drying technology as a simple physical process, scholars have a deeper research on its mechanism and process. In the 1950s, spray thermal decomposition technology was developed in spray drying technology. By the 1970s, Austrian Ruthner first applied this technology to industrial production. Solution atomization roasting method is also a new method of powdering by means of spray technology.
The method is more complicated than spray pyrolysis.
The solution atomization roasting reaction is to atomize a nickel chloride solution into a micron-sized droplet by a nozzle to form an aerosol, and then rapidly dry to a superfine powder at a high temperature, and simultaneously carry out a chemical reaction. Since the gas, liquid and solid are the same in the reaction, it is a fluidized reaction with a large phase interface. The heat transfer and mass transfer are fast, the reaction efficiency is high, and the product quality is excellent and reliable. The reaction mechanism in the process is NiCl2 ( s) + H2O ( g) →  NiO ( s ) + 2HCl ( g) .
The high-temperature environment is used to supply the activation energy, and the nickel chloride is dissociated, which is reflected in the chemical bond cleavage between nickel and oxygen. Thereafter, the nickel atom and the oxygen atom generated by water dissociation are oxidized to obtain nickel oxide. Under standard conditions, the above reactions cannot be carried out spontaneously. When the temperature of the system rises to a certain level and reaches the spontaneous reaction thermodynamic condition that the Gibbs energy is less than zero, the formation reaction of nickel oxide can be realized.
Analysis of the NiO system binary phase diagram. It can be seen that below 1984 °C, nickel oxide is stable in solid form, and the oxidation state of nickel is single nickel oxide. The structure of the phase diagram shows that when the nickel is incompletely oxidized below the melting temperature of nickel, it is partially oxidized to nickel oxide and coexisted with nickel; when the oxygen value is increased, the nickel can be completely Oxidation to nickel oxide, that is, the molar ratio of nickel to oxygen in the phase diagram is equal to 1, the stable combination of nickel and oxygen is a single face-centered cubic nickel oxide. Thereafter, the increase in oxygen value does not change the oxidation state of nickel, which is manifested as other metastable high-valence oxides that do not stably produce nickel.