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Home > Blog >

Tungsten Oxide Nanowire Supercapacitor Lithium Battery Replacement?

2019-07-03
A lithium ion battery is a secondary battery that relies mainly on lithium ions to move between a positive electrode and a negative electrode to operate. With the development of technology, the application of lithium-ion batteries has almost covered our lives, such as smartphones, tablets, laptops, game controllers, cordless power tools, beauty products, digital cameras, camcorders, cars, etc. For lithium ion batteries.
Lithium-ion batteries are really good. However, they also have their own shortcomings. The charging time and safety performance of lithium ions have always been a topic of concern. Therefore, scientists are constantly looking for alternatives that can replace lithium-ion batteries, but only develop cost and performance and products. It's not that easy, but there are a lot of breakthroughs, such as supercapacitors.
 
Unlike lithium-ion batteries that store energy through chemical processes, capacitors use static electricity to store energy. To make a simple analogy, when you take your clothes out of the dryer, when your clothes stick together, static electricity is generated, and the capacitors can absorb and store the static electricity. Speaking of this, you should know where the supercapacitor can be used? For example, our hybrid car, when it generates electric energy during braking or driving, can be absorbed and stored by supercapacitor, and then reused in the power system of the car. The characteristics of the capacitor are obviously more suitable for mixing than the lithium ion battery. Moving cars.
Capacitors have some significant advantages over lithium batteries as an energy storage device. For example, they charge and discharge faster, are lighter in weight, do not wear faster, and are free of toxic and dangerous chemicals. Supercapacitors can store more orders of magnitude energy than conventional capacitors. They are a new type of energy storage device with performance between physical capacitors and secondary batteries. They combine the power density of physical capacitors with the high energy density of secondary batteries. In addition, supercapacitors are also characterized by high efficiency and long cycle life. The future has broad application prospects in the fields of electric vehicles, information and communication, aerospace and military.
 
But making a large-capacity supercapacitor is not as easy as it is supposed to be. If you can break through it, there is no lithium battery. Thanks to the advancement of nanotechnology, more and more new materials have surfaced. Recently, researchers at the University of Florida have developed a supercapacitor made of tungsten oxide nanowires. The nanowires are wrapped in a two-dimensional shell by a one-dimensional core (highly monocrystalline tungsten trioxide). Made of tungsten disulfide).
Tungsten oxide nanowires are one-dimensional materials. Due to the reduction of material dimensions and the reduction of structural features, one-dimensional nanomaterials exhibit more novel physical and chemical properties such as electricity, magnetism, light, and heat. Characteristics, and therefore, tungsten oxide nanowires have a larger specific surface area than conventional tungsten oxide materials. These nanowire supercapacitors solve the size problem. At least one dimension of the nanoscale material is less than about 100 nanometers, which is about 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. You can put millions of nanowires into the same volume occupied by lithium-ion batteries in your phone.
Therefore, the combination of millions of nanowires produces supercapacitors, and its performance makes it an ideal replacement for lithium-ion batteries. For example, they charge and discharge very quickly. Scientists who successfully synthesize tungsten oxide nanowires believe that the new supercapacitors charge very fast, so that electronic devices equipped with nanowire supercapacitors can be charged in a few seconds, charging time can continue for more than one week of normal use, and the fast discharge rate will Accelerate cars with nanowire supercapacitors faster than electric vehicles with lithium-ion batteries.
 
Another advantage is that nanowire supercapacitors don't wear out like lithium-ion batteries (just like computer mechanical hard drives and solid state hard drives). The average lithium-ion battery lasts 1,000 to 1,500 charge cycles. However, nanowire supercapacitors did not degrade after 30,000 charge cycles. If all of this is not enough for your heart, then nanowire supercapacitors can be used on flexible substrates, molded into the desired shape or incorporated into wearable devices, or the energy supply of a detachable flexible film phone, these It seems that the cool technology seems to be there. In summary, at this stage of development, nanowire supercapacitors are not ready for commercial proof of concept.