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“Intelligent Coatings” Tungsten Oxide Will Change Our Home Environment

The era of intelligence is coming. Smart cars, smart phones, smart appliances, and intelligent robots are all in an era of intelligence. Have you ever thought about "smart glass" or "smart paint"? In fact, these materials have been in the past few years. It has already appeared, it will change our lives silently.

Intelligent coatings include various nanomaterials such as nano-titanium, organic-inorganic hybrid polymers, nano-tungsten oxide, zinc or indium, which are self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, color-converting, etc., and can achieve higher transparency. They can meet the different needs of the future end-use industry, such as automotive and transportation, construction, microelectronics, aerospace and defense, marine, etc., can be used for intelligent glass, display, anti-glare mirrors, military facilities camouflage facilities, micro-semiconductors, etc. . At present, the most popular application is electrochromic glass. At the moment of real estate-oriented, electrochromic will be the necessary building hardware for green energy-efficient buildings in the future.
Intelligent coatings are relative to traditional coatings. Smart coatings are smart because smart coatings can respond to changes in the external environment in a controlled manner, producing adaptive, special properties that keep coatings effective. . For example, electrochromic glass can adjust the external light according to people's actual needs, so that driving a car can have a panoramic roof, a super-driving experience that can achieve full visibility, and no need to hang curtains at home. It can cool down in summer, keep warm in winter, improve the natural light level, prevent peeping at night, and have a future. It is also possible to convert sunlight that shines on glass into electricity to meet the electricity demand of the household.
Nano-tungsten oxide is one of the most commonly used smart coatings, and its advantage is electrochromism. In addition, tungsten trioxide has a wide application prospect in gaschromic, filter, dye sensitization and so on. In the trip to Taiwan of China Tungsten Online, we have visited a semiconductor company specializing in the manufacture of tungsten oxide electrochromic thin films. The current production line has invested nearly NT$500 million. The products are mainly used to manufacture intelligent color change. Glass, in addition to the use of special-purpose display screens, of course, technical details will not tell us. However, the author himself has some shallow understanding of the electrochromic function of tungsten oxide, and can still tell one or two.
Mechanism of electro-deformation of tungsten trioxide: Tungsten trioxide is an n-type semiconductor material and also a kind of "d0" oxide. The main framework of tungsten oxide is composed of tungsten-oxygen octahedrons connected end to end. In the space skeleton. The pores enclosed by the tungsten-oxygen octahedron can be embedded in the smaller-sized cations to form tungsten bronze. The reversible transformation process of tungsten oxide and tungsten bronze is always accompanied by internal electron transfer and tungsten valence change, thereby causing color change reaction. To achieve controllable adjustment of transmitted light.
The tungsten trioxide electrochromic glass window is mainly composed of a transparent electrode, a tungsten oxide electrochromic film, a lithium ion electrolyte, an ion storage film, a transparent electrode, and the like, and a low voltage power supply is provided to provide a driving voltage to realize the electricity of the sandwich structure. Discoloration. At present, the best electrochromic performance of tungsten trioxide is blue tungsten oxide, and the tungsten oxide in the colored state is dark blue. Because of its soft color and good light barrier performance, it is suitable for daily household use. In addition, the crystalline blue tungsten oxide has a higher reflectance to infrared light after discoloration. A similar thermal insulation effect as low-emissivity glass can be achieved, which helps to reduce indoor energy consumption.
However, tungsten oxide is not perfect, and the existing tungsten oxide electrochromic glazing has the disadvantages of short cycle life, slow response rate of large-sized glass electrochromic, and lack of near-infrared modulation capability. Therefore, most industrial manufacturing will enhance the electro-deformation properties of tungsten trioxide, such as titanium, molybdenum, vanadium and niobium, by doping other metal elements. The incorporation of these elements changes the crystallinity, grain size and surface contact area of ​​the film layer, and increases the contact area of ​​the ion conductive layer with the tungsten oxide layer, thereby improving the electrochromic performance. At present, the incorporation of antimony in tungsten oxide is the best known photochromic material, and it can also be called tungsten bronze or barium tungstate.
Only people who can't think of it, can't do it, and innovate infinitely will find more applications for smart glass. However, due to the process, almost all of the multifunctional smart coatings are not cheap. Relatively speaking, the tungsten oxide-based electrochromic smart coating is the cheaper and the easiest to promote.