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Next generation semiconductor material: silicon carbide

2019-08-24
Nanomaterials are the foundation of nanoscience and technology. They have novel physical, chemical and biological properties. They are playing an increasingly important role in many fields such as information storage, optoelectronic devices, catalysis and sensors, and has always been a research hotspot for scientists.

Silicon Carbide (SiC) is an excellent semiconductor material with many excellent properties. Such as: forbidden belt width, thermal stability, mechanical strength, oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance. These features make it ideal for use in high temperature, high pressure and caustic conditions, and as an ideal toughening agent for ceramic, metal and polymer composites.
 
The properties and applications of nanomaterials
 
Since 1991, gleiter and others have taken the lead in the preparation of nanomaterials, after years of efforts, nanomaterial science has made great progress. Nowadays, there are many kinds of nanomaterials, which can be divided into: nano-metal materials, nano-ceramic materials, nano-semiconductor materials, nano-polymer materials, and the like. Nanomaterials are ultra-fine particles and are known as "new materials for the 21st century."

Nano is a measure of the length and thickness of a substance. The so-called nanomaterial is that the basic structural unit of the constituent material is represented in the three-dimensional coordinates by at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nm. The physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials are different from macroscopic objects and molecular atoms, but in between, so they are also called mesoscopic materials. At present, nanomaterials can be divided into zero-dimensional, one-dimensional and two-dimensional in dimension.

1. Zero dimension is in the nanometer scale in every direction of the three-dimensional space, similar to the point structure.
2. One dimension has two directions in the nanometer scale, similar to the linear structure.
3. Two-dimensional means that only one direction is nanoscale, similar to a planar structure.
 
The properties of nanomaterials are mainly manifested in four effects:
 
1. Small size effect: Studies have shown that when the size of the nanoparticle becomes small enough, some of its physical properties (including the wavelength and continuity of the material's de Broglie wave, the propagation speed of light waves in the medium, the coherence length in the superconducting medium, etc. ) will change. Its macroscopic performance is that the material environment is damaged, the surface structure is affected, and the material has new effects in physical properties such as light, heat, electricity, sound and magnetism.

2. Surface and interface effects: In general, the surface activity of nanoparticles is relatively high, and nanomaterials with high specific surface can be formed. The high specific surface can cause the atomic transfer and surface structure of the constituent materials to change, changing the electronic energy spectrum of the surface of the material and the spin of the electron itself, thus affecting the chemical properties of the substance.
3. Quantum size effect: As the scale of microscopic particles decreases, the Fermi electron energy level appears to change from quasi-continuous energy state to discrete energy level. The continuous or dispersion of the electronic energy levels is affected by temperature and size: for example, at high temperatures and macroscopic dimensions, the electronic energy levels are generally continuous, and vice versa. The dispersion of electrons causes the highest occupied orbit and the lowest empty orbit to appear, and the energy level becomes wider. This effect affects the differences in performance of different sizes of the same material.

4. Macroscopic quantum tunneling: The ability of microscopic particles to have a barrier across the surface is called tunneling. The combination of fine particles increases the magnetization and produces the magnetic flux of the quantum coherent device. Such as ultra-fine nickel particles superparamagnetic stability at low temperatures. Its research and development are of great significance to both the scientific field and practical applications. These effects often work simultaneously to control the properties of nanomaterials, making them exhibit special properties not found in conventional materials in terms of electricity, magnetism, and light. Therefore, nanomaterials have broad application prospects in magnetic recording, optoelectronic devices, heterogeneous catalysis, sensing, and ceramic reinforcement.
 
Research significance of nano-silicon carbide
In addition to high thermal conductivity, thermal stability, oxidation resistance, chemical corrosion resistance, low thermal expansion coefficient, high thermal conductivity, good chemical stability, and high mechanical properties, silicon carbide nanomaterials also have many excellent characteristics, such as high band gap width, small dielectric constant, high electron saturation mobility, high critical breakdown electric field and thermal conductivity. Electron and optoelectronic devices fabricated from SiC single crystals have broad application prospects in special environments such as aerospace, radar test vehicles, petroleum cobalt exploration, and high temperature radiation environments. At the same time, its other unique light, electricity, and excellent mechanical properties have extremely wide and potential application value in many fields.