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New inorganic nonmetallic materials- Titanium carbide

Titanium carbide is an extremely hard metal carbide. Because of its high hardness and chemical stability, it is used in the manufacture of cermets, heat-resistant alloys and hard alloys, and can also be used as a deoxidizer in the steel industry.
TC has good heat transfer performance and electrical conductivity, and its electrical conductivity decreases with increasing temperature, indicating that TC has metallic properties. The molten metal titanium (1800~2400) °C reacts directly with carbon to form TC. Generally, Ti2 is obtained by reducing TO2 with carbon at a high temperature (above 1800°C) vacuum.
Titanium carbide is the hardest carbide known and is an important raw material for the production of cemented carbide. TC also has high thermal hardness, low friction coefficient and low thermal conductivity. Therefore, TC containing tools have higher cutting speed and longer service life than WC and other materials. If a thin layer of TC is deposited on the surface of a tool such as another material (such as WC), the performance of the tool can be greatly improved.
Titanium carbide performance
Titanium carbide is a typical transition metal carbide. Its bond type is composed of ionic bonds, covalent bonds and metal bonds mixed in the same crystal structure, because some titanium carbide has many unique properties. The structure of the crystal determines the basic characteristics of titanium carbide with high hardness, high melting point, wear resistance and electrical conductivity. Titanium carbide ceramics are the most widely developed materials for transition metal carbides of titanium, zirconium and chromium.

Extensive research has been carried out from powders, blocks and films of titanium carbide. Among the composite materials composed of alumina hard dispersed phase, the effect of alumina-titanium carbide composite ceramics is good. Titanium carbide has good wettability with certain metals. Titanium carbide ceramics develop rapidly. Titanium carbide is an important enhancer in metal composites. Its products are widely used in many fields such as machinery, electronics, chemical environmental protection, fusion reactors, and defense industry.
The cheapest way to synthesize titanium carbide powder is to use titanium dioxide and carbon black in a high temperature (1700 ~ 2100°C) in an inert or reducing atmosphere. However, the titanium carbide synthesized by this method is in the form of a block, and after the synthesis, ball milling is still required to form the powder, and the processed powder particle size can only reach the micron order. In addition, there are many methods for the synthesis of titanium carbide powder, such as magnesium thermal reduction method, high extraction carbonization method, direct carbonization method, high temperature self-propagation synthesis method, reaction ball milling technology preparation method, and synthesis in molten metal bath, spark erosion method, and the like.
Titanium carbide and its composite materials, as part of the special ceramic materials, correctly select the kneading method, which is the key to obtain the rational structure and predetermined properties. If sintering is carried out under normal atmospheric pressure (without special atmosphere or normal pressure), it is difficult to obtain a product having no porosity or high strength regardless of the sintering conditions. Therefore, titanium carbide ceramics and composite materials thereof are generally not subjected to normal pressure sintering, instead, it is sintered by hot press sintering, hot isostatic pressing, vacuum sintering, self-propagating high-temperature sintering, microwave sintering, spark plasma sintering, plasma sintering, and the like.