Gazprom recently said it had completely suspended gas supplies to Bulgarian Gas company and Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) because it was not being paid in rubles. Russia said it would resume gas supplies after it agreed to pay for them in rubles.
Bulgaria and Poland announced Monday that they have received a notice from Russia to suspend natural gas supplies from Monday.
Russian President Vladimir Putin on March 31 signed a presidential decree to settle gas trade with "unfriendly" countries and regions in rubles. When the new rules took effect on April 1, Presidential press secretary Dmitry Peskov said Russia would not immediately "cut off gas" to Europe, as the cost of gas supplies starting April 1 should be settled in the second half of April or May.
Because of the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk Bi2S3 powder are still very uncertain.
The Incas had long added bismuth to a special type of bronze alloy cutting tool, but for long time bismuth was only vaguely understood and was often confused with silver, lead and tin.
Bismuth's Latin name comes from the German word for white substance, but the metal bismuth is not all silvery-white. It also contains some pink. It was not until 1753 that Bismuth was finally confirmed as a chemical element by Jofroy and Bergman in England.
Bismuth is white with a peach-colored metallic sheen. It burns with a blue flame, producing yellow smoke. Bismuth has a very low melting point of 271 degrees. You can melt the bismuth at home in a small stainless-steel pot and cool it down. You can see that the bismuth, like water, actually expands when it freezes. Coupled with partial oxidation of the surface, we get a rainbow of colorful crystals. This is caused by the oxide film with different thicknesses on the bismuth crystal surface.
Why is bismuth comparable to gold?
That's because it's about twice as abundant in the earth's crust as gold, and it's actually one of the rarer metals. It is the number 83 element in the periodic table, and it is also the heaviest element in the periodic table. Its price averages only a few dollars per kilogram on the international market. It is very cheap compared to other fossil materials.
Bismuth was used as the base for boxes and boxes as far back as ancient Greece and Rome.
Why does bismuth get its iridescent sheen?
Because of the spiral step structure of the bismuth crystal, the oxide film around the outer edge grows at a higher rate. It will cause the interference of light, bismuth metal in nature often exists in the form of free metal and minerals, when scientists use high-temperature burns when heated above the melting point of metal bismuth, burning crystal light blue flame, bismuth oxide can be produced after dissolved into a liquid, after cooling from silver become a polarized light rainbow of color, so bismuth metal forms complex and regular bismuth crystals. Its color is determined by the thickness of the outer oxide film, which reflects different colors of the metal. It is often compared to lead, which is often replaced by bismuth.
Bismuth has a similar density to lead, and bismuth is less physically toxic than lead. Lead can cause kidney damage, headaches, and convulsions. Many children died from lead poisoning. There are also many foreign hunters who replace all the lead bullets in their hunting rifles with ammunition made of bismuth, which is used to kill animals.
Bismuth has poor electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity. Bismuth metal has a melting point of 271.5 degrees Celsius.
Bismuth crystals are more brilliant than diamonds and can be made into various arts and crafts. Bismuth is also often used in cutting-edge technologies, such as making superconductors and even in nuclear tests.
In a study published in Catalysis, a team at the University of Delaware say they have detected an undiscovered property of the metal bismuth: it can be used as a catalyst to catalyze carbon dioxide into liquid fuels and industrial chemicals. The project team believes the discovery could help reduce carbon dioxide emissions and provide a sustainable means of fuel production.
The researchers call this new characteristic of bismuth "catalytic plasticity." The team has previously conducted several experiments showing that bismuth films can be used in combination with certain liquid salts as a cheap catalyst for converting carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide, a gaseous fuel. In the new study, the team concluded that electrifying bismuth films immersed in salt solutions containing imidazolium and amidine ions regulates chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuel gasoline or the industrial chemical formic acid.
According to the general theory of chemistry, different kinds of chemical reactions need different catalysts, but the "catalytic plasticity" of bismuth gives the metal bismuth the ability to catalyze many types of chemical reactions. Researchers made clear that, from a technical perspective, the new findings, making use of renewable energy sources like solar and wind power to promote the direct production of liquid fuel as possible, metal bismuth catalysis plasticity make researchers have opened a new work direction test, researchers are expected to develop renewable energy conversion, the new method of fuel production and catalytic.
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The development of the Russia-Ukraine conflict will continue to dominate the commodity prices such as the Bi2S3 powder in the future. If the conflict eases or cools, Russia and Ukraine go back to negotiate, commodity prices would fall. However, if the situation between Russia and Ukraine deteriorates further, or evolves into a full-scale war, the price of the Bi2S3 powder is predicted to see further improvement over the coming days.
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