Bismuth is a chemical element with the symbol Bi and atomic number 83. It is a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens with chemical properties resembling its lighter homologs arsenic and antimony.
Phase at STP：solid
Appearance：lustrous brownish silver
Melting point：544.7 K (271.5 °C, 520.7 °F)
Boiling point：1837 K (1564 °C, 2847 °F)
Density (near r.t.)：9.78 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)：10.05 g/cm3
Heat of fusion：11.30 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization：179 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity：25.52 J/(mol·K)
Bismuth compounds account for about half the production of bismuth. They are used in cosmetics, pigments, and a few pharmaceuticals, notably bismuth subsalicylate, used to treat diarrhea. Bismuth's unusual propensity to expand as it solidifies is responsible for some of its uses, such as in casting of printing type. Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal. As the toxicity of lead has become more apparent in recent years, there is an increasing use of bismuth alloys (presently about a third of bismuth production) as a replacement for lead.
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