Commodity prices are on track for their biggest rally in more than a century, while fixed-income assets have seen their longest run of outflows as the war in Ukraine adds to inflationary pressures in the global economy emerging from the coronavirus lockdown, according to Bank of America.
"Commodity prices this year are on track to record their biggest gains since 1915." the bank said in its weekly briefing. They cite many factors, such as pandemics, lockdown, civil strife, wars, excessive monetary and fiscal stimulus, and supply chain disruptions, that have led to "historically" high inflation.
By the same token, it said government bonds were heading for their worst year since 1949, and "negative-yielding bonds will quietly disappear" from the market as central banks embark on a monetary tightening cycle and raise interest rates to tame soaring inflation.
The prices of many commodities like the Polycarboxylate superplasticizer are expected to increase in the future.
What is Polycarboxylate superplasticizer?
Polycarboxylate superplasticizer is the third generation of high-performance water-reducing agent after ordinary water-reducing agent and high-efficiency water-reducing agent. Compared with other types of superplasticizers, it has the advantages of strong molecular designability, high water reduction rate, good slump retention, low chloride ion and alkaline substance content, and pollution-free production and use. In practical applications, polycarboxylate superplasticizers are often compounded with a small amount of defoaming components, retarding components, air-entraining components, and viscosity-modifying components to meet different technical performance requirements of concrete.
The combination of sodium gluconate or sucrose as a retarding component with a polycarboxylate superplasticizer can increase the water reduction rate to a certain extent, slow down the loss of concrete slump, and improve the adaptability of the superplasticizer to cement. However, at the same time, the polycarboxylate superplasticizer products are often deteriorated quickly due to the addition of sodium gluconate, ranging from reduced performance to complete loss of efficacy, which brings many uncertain factors to engineering use or directly leads to engineering accidents. This problem is even worse in hot weather.
Phenomenon and causes of deterioration of polycarboxylate superplasticizers
1.In the early stage of deterioration of polycarboxylate superplasticizer, there are light-colored fluffy or cotton-wool plaques on the liquid surface, and then develop into discrete block-shaped floating objects, and string-shaped bubbles emerge from time to time;
2. When the deterioration is serious, the bacterial plaque will cover the entire liquid surface, and the solution will appear dense green, brown and black suspended matter, accompanied by the generation of rotten sour gas. This deterioration is mainly caused by mildew.
The mildew of polycarboxylate superplasticizer is also related to its storage environment. Improper storage conditions, such as severe temperature rise in the storage space, lack of ventilation, and humidity, lead to the melting of the large monomer and the local temperature of the monomer is too high. Higher temperature will intensify the movement of macromolecular chains. Once the dissociation energy of chemical bonds is exceeded, chain decomposition, random fracture and thermal decomposition will occur, resulting in accelerated degradation of polymers. Similarly, the higher the temperature, the greater the activity of microorganisms, and the faster the mildew rate of the superplasticizer.
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The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic not only had a significant impact on public health, it also severely affected one of the linchpins of the global economy – the tourism industry. As many countries introduced curfews and travel restrictions to contain the spread of the virus, travel across the world significantly declined from early 2020 onwards. The financial repercussions of the coronavirus have already begun to manifest themselves within the tourism industry. In 2020, global revenue from the travel and tourism industry was estimated to drop from a forecasted 711.94 billion U.S. dollars to 568.6 billion U.S. dollars, representing a decrease of over 20 percent. The region predicted to see the highest decline in revenue was Europe, decreasing from 211.97 billion U.S. dollars in 2019 to roughly 124 billion U.S. dollars in 2020.
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